The incidence of nephrolithiasis (kidney stones) is increasing worldwide. Out of 100 people 9 are expected to get kidney stone in their life time.
Kidney stones are solid masses (or) pebbles made by crystals of salt and minerals formed within the kidney or urinary tract. Low fluid intake results to dehydration and it is the main cause of stone formation. All kidney stones are not made up of same crystals. There are many types of kidney stones like:
Calcium stones (made up of calcium oxalate or phosphate and most common type of kidney stone formation)
Uric acid stones (develops when urine is too acidic)
Struvite stones (caused by kidney infection)
Cystine stones ( develops when high amount of cystine in urine)
Major causes – Dehydration, medications including calcium based antacids, inflammatory bowel diseases increases calcium absorption, higher intake of diet with protein, salts and glucose.
Symptoms – cramps on one side of your back or abdomen, vomiting, nausea, blood in urine, more often urination and burning sensation while passing urine.
Diagnosing kidney stones – Blood tests for calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine to assess kidney functioning, ultrasound of the kidney, abdominal X-rays, abdominal CT scan are the tests to be done to diagnose the stones in kidney.
Treatment – The consumption of ample fluids helps in facilitate the passage of kidney stones and with plenty of water increases the urine flow. People with severe dehydration, vomiting and nausea may need intravenous fluids. For large stones and which do not pass on their own usually respond well to treatments such as ureteroscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL).
Prevention – Hydrate with H2O one of the best method to avoid kidney stones. Low sodium diet is recommended for the stone prevention. Consuming much of animal protein, like red meat, poultry, eggs increases the level of uric acid and may lead to kidney stones.
Kidney Stone Treatment Procedures
- Mini Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL)
- Micro Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL)
- Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy for Large Stones