The kidney stone is a crystalline mineral deposit which can be formed within the kidney or urinary tract. It is formed when salts and other minerals in urine club together inside of the kidney or urinary tract. The stones thus formed will be very small in size initially , but grow bigger over time.
The smaller the kidney stone, the more likely it will pass on its own. If it is too large, they may cause intense pain. When the stone is in the Kidney it rarely causes pain. If it falls into the ureter, as the kidney continues to function and the pressure builds up behind the stone and causes kidney to swell.
There are many factors that can trigger changes in the urine, some are the following:
Medications:- Patients who take excess amount of calcium antacids, vitamin A and Vitamin D can increase the amount of calcium in their urine and potentially increase the risk of forming stones.
Underlying illness:- Some Chronic illnesses are associated with kidney stone formation, including renal tubular acidosis, inflammatory bowel diseases and cystic fibrosis.
Diet:- Diet may sometimes be an issue to forming stones, foods high in salt and animal protein may increase the risk of forming stones.
Heredity:- Heredity may play a role in predisposition of calcium in the urine.
- Drinking plenty of fluid can wash out the stones within 48 hours.
- Lithotripsy- A method that makes use of shock waves to decimate a kidney stone into smaller pieces, which can be easily expelled from the body.
- Percutaneous nephrolithotomy – A procedure in which a kidney stone is removed via a small incision in the skin
- Ureteroscope- An instrument that is advanced up through the urethra and bladder to the ureter that removes the kidney stones.
- Flexible pyeloscopy (or Retrograde Intra Renal Surgery- RIRS) – A thin lighted telescope is introduced into the kidney from outside the patients without the need for any incision and efficiently fragment stones, and micro-baskets (less than 1mm wide) to retrieve any stone fragments.
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